George H. Carbaugh, born November 27, 1849, was the son of Abraham “Abram” and Eliza Detrich Carbaugh of Antrim Township. Abraham was a farmer, but did not own real estate, when he was enumerated on the 1850 U.S. Census. By the August 23, 1860 census, though, Abraham owned $14,700 worth of real estate in Antrim Township. His personal estate was valued at $2,235. Abraham and Eliza had three sons, George (10), Emanuel (9), Snively S. (2), and one daughter Sarah, who was one year old. John Cross (45), a laborer, was counted as part of the Carbaugh household.
By the time the Civil War began, George was 11 ½ years old, but in 1862, according to Government records, he was drafted and enrolled, on October 16, 1862, as a private, in Co. G, 158th PA Infantry. George was one month and 11 days away from his 13th birthday. His Civil War veteran’s card, at the Pennsylvania State Archives, says that he was 16 years old. George served nine months and 26 days, from November 4, 1862 to August 12, 1863, at which time he was still 13 years of age.
It is 153 years after the Civil War began and society has changed so very much. Children matured at a much younger age, in regards to their sense of responsibility, but I’m still trying to rationalize how Abraham and Eliza let their oldest son go to war, at the age of not quite 13 years. Even had George really been 16, Abraham would have had to sign his name to give permission for George to fight in the Civil War. Was George such a headstrong, young person that he convinced his father to give permission to the government to enroll George in the Army? Was it wanderlust on George’s part or the “romance” of going off to war?
Company G of the 158th PA Infantry was organized in Chambersburg, PA on Saturday, November 1, 1862. The soldiers were mustered in on Tuesday, November 4, 1864. According to the records of the 158th PA Volunteer Infantry, the regiment’s duty included: encampment at Suffolk, VA, until December 28, 1862; they were on the move to New Berne, N. C., from December 28 to January 1, 1863; they remained there until June 1863, with various expedition assignments within North Carolina. The regiment was ordered to Fortress Monroe, VA, the beginning of June. The 158th participated in Dix's Peninsula Campaign July 1 to 7 and moved to Harper's Ferry July 7 to 9, and then on to Boonsboro, MD, and reported to Gen. Meade on July 11. At this time, the 158th joined other Union regiments in the pursuit of Lee, from July 11 to 24. The regiment was ordered to Harrisburg, PA on August 3 and was mustered out on August 12, 1863. During their tour of duty, the regiment lost 45 men from disease, but there were no battle casualties.
Harrison Seabrook, Quincy, was in Co. E, 158th PA Infantry and Levi Yous, Montgomery Township, and William Quest, Antrim Township, were both in Co. D, 158th at the same time George Carbaugh was in Co. G. They were all enrolled, mustered in, and mustered out together. The first three men were the subjects of former Soldier’s Stories.
One year later, on August 30, 1864, George, again, enlisted in Co. G, 205th PA Infantry, in the Army. The regiment was organized in Harrisburg on September 2, 1864 and on September 5, 1864 the regiment was transported to City Point, VA. Here is where the Army records begin to differ. In Samuel P. Bates’ History of the Pennsylvania Volunteers, 1861 – 1865, in the muster out column, it says “Deserted on September 3, 1864.” The U.S. Civil War Soldier Records and Profiles, 1861 – 1865, taken from the Army records, it says “Mustered out on September 3, 1864.” September 3 was two days before the regiment was moved to Virginia. Whichever scenario it actually was, there were 14 other enlisted men in Co. G who also deserted or were also mustered out on September 3, along with George Carbaugh, aged 14 years and eight months. There were two versions of George’s Veterans Burial Card – one included the correct dates for both the 158th and the 205th and the copy of the Veterans Burial Card that came from the VA office in Chambersburg, only had George’s service in the 158th listed.
There were three George Carbaughs, from Franklin County, who fought in the Civil War. George D. Carbaugh (age 42) was in Co. G, 158th with the George Carbaugh, who is the subject of this Soldier’s Story. George D. also served a second time in Co. K, 201st PA Infantry. He is buried in Salem Lutheran Cemetery, Letterkenny Township. The third George Carbaugh was in Co. G, 203rd PA Infantry from August 24, 1864, until he died in a Philadelphia hospital on July 1, 1865. He is buried in Strang’s Cemetery, Guilford Township. I believe it is a clerical error on the third George Carbaugh’s burial card, which says he also served in Co. G, 158th PA Infantry. With three George Carbaughs, all from Franklin County, having fought in the Civil War, it is easy to understand how the records could be confused. The 1890 Veterans Schedules and the pension records are also very confusing. The George Carbaugh who died on July 1, 1865 is enumerated on one of three pages, of the Franklin County Surviving Veterans Schedule records, with the name George Carbaugh. But there’s no “widow of” listed, so if he died and wasn’t married, he shouldn’t have been counted as a survivor. Without the individual muster roll records and additional pension office records, there is no way to figure out the George Carbaugh pension cards.
After George either deserted or was mustered out on September 3, 1864, he returned to his parents’ home, in Antrim Township. On the August 11, 1870 U.S. Census, Abraham’s real estate was worth $8,250, a decrease of $6,450, since the 1860 census. The Carbaugh’s personal estate increased in value to $2,500. George (20), Emanuel (19), Snively (12), and Abraham (9) had all attended school within the year. Daughter Sarah, on the 1860 census, must have died because was not on the census. Abraham and Eliza’s youngest child was Minnie, who was one year old.
On August 5, 1868, under “Pennsylvania’s Civil War Border Claims, 1868 to 1879,” Abraham filed for $25 worth of damage to his real estate and $799 damage to his personal estate, which occurred during the Confederate invasions into Antrim Township, during the Civil War. His Border Claim damages were approved on October 14, 1871. Abraham was awarded $824, which in 2014 would be worth $13,505.36. One 2014 dollar would be worth $.06 in 1868 – inflation, inflation, inflation.
During the 1880 census, George was still living with his parents and his siblings – Snively, Abraham, and Minnie. George’s occupation was teacher. From the 1900 census, it is learned that George married in 1888. The 1930 census recorded the age of each person when they got married. George was 38 when he married Alice D., who was 27. She was 11 years younger than George, having been born in January 1859.
To the best of my knowledge, I believe that George and Alice were living in Guilford Springs in 1890. The Surviving Soldiers special schedule recorded in Guilford Springs and Marion had one George Carbaugh enumerated, and the only regiment listed was 158th PA Infantry. There were no disabilities recorded, or any written remarks noted.
On the 1900 U.S. Census, George and Alice were living in the 1st Election District in Antrim Township. George and Alice owned their farm, free and clear of a mortgage.
Alice and George had been married for 12 years at the time the census was taken on June 2, 1900. She had born four children but only three were living – Snively S. (7), Edith M. (5), and Franklin L. (3).
In 1910, the Carbaughs were still living in Antrim Township. Their family had grown by one – Hazel E. was seven years old. Snively, at the age of 17, was working for his father on the farm. Edith (15), Frank (13), and Hazel had all attended school since September 1, 1909.
The Great War – World War I, broke out in 1914 but the United States did not get involved until 1917. George and Alice’s son, Sgt. Franklin L. Carbaugh, served in the Sanitary Detachment of the 7th Machine Gun Battalion. He went into service in the Army on July 15, 1917. Franklin L. Carbaugh died of his wounds, in a hospital, 96 years ago, this past Friday, on August 1, 1918. Frank received his wounds during the Second Battle of the Marne, France. On his death bed, he wrote a well-known poem, “The Fields of the Marne.” This poem, along with many other poems written by American Doughboys, was first published under The Army Poet’s column, in the U.S. Army’s newspaper, “The Stars and Stripes.” In 1919, 84 of the poems written by the men of the U.S. Army’s American Expeditionary Forces, were published in a book – YANKS A.E.F. Verse. “The Fields of the Marne” appears on pages 83 and 84 in the book. In the book’s foreward, John T. Wintinnly wrote, “The A.E.F. was the most sentimental outfit that ever lived. Most of it – so it seemed to anyone who served on the staff of The Stars and Stripes – wrote poetry.” Greencastle’s American Legion Post 373 was named in memory of Frank L. Carbaugh.
According to the 1920 census, the Carbaughs farm was off Long Lane, in Antrim Township. George was 70 years old and Alice was 59. Snively (27) was still working on the family farm and Edith (25) was a school teacher at one of the schools in Antrim Township. Hazel (16) was “at home,” presumably still attending school.
George was 80 years old and Alice was 69 when the census taker stopped at their home in 1930. Their mailing address was R.D. #2, Greencastle, PA. Snively (35) and Edith (32), both still single, lived with their parents on the family farm. According to the death certificate, George continued working until sometime in 1936. George H. Carbaugh, school teacher and farmer, and one of the youngest to fight in the Civil War, died on May 20, 1937, at the age of 87 years, five months, and 23 days old. The A. E. Minnich Funeral home took care of the arrangements. George is buried in Section B, Lot 103, Cedar Hill Cemetery, Antrim Township, Franklin County, PA. Alice is buried alongside George. She lived until 1960! Edith died in 1977 and Hazel 1982. Snively lived until 1978. It appears that none of them married. They are buried in the family plot with their parents, as well as their brother Frank, who died in during WWI in 1918. There are two markers for Frank – American Legion and WWI, but there is no Civil War marker for George.
THE FIELDS OF THE MARNE
The fields of the Marne are growing green,
The river murmurs on and on;
No more the hail of mitrailleuse,
The cannon from the hills are gone.
The herder leads the sheep afield,
Where grasses grow o’er broken blade;
And toil-worn women till the soil
O’er human mold, in sunny glade.
The splintered shell and bayonet
Are lost in crumbling village wall;
No sniper scans the rim of hills,
No sentry hears the night bird call.
From blood-wet soil and sunken trench,
The flowers bloom in summer light;
And farther down the vale beyond,
The peasant smiles are sad, yet bright.
The wounded Marne is growing green,
The gash of Hun no longer smarts;
Democracy is born again,
But what about the troubled hearts?
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